Walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs - even arthropods with six, eight or more limbs.
In humans and other bipeds, walking is generally distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground and there is a period of double-support. In contrast, running begins when both feet are off the ground with each step. This distinction has the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events. For quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed walking or running, and distinctions based upon the presence or absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time do not yield mechanically correct classification. The most effective method to distinguish walking from running is based on the percent of the stride in which a foot is in contact with the ground; defining a walk as greater than 50% contact corresponds well with identification of 'inverted pendulum' mechanics via force plate measurements.
The average human child achieves independent walking ability around 11 months old.The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan "to roll".
For humans, walking is the main form of transportation without a vehicle or riding animal. Although walking speeds can vary greatly depending on factors such as height, weight, age, terrain, surface, load, culture, effort, and fitness, the average human walking speed is about 5 kilometres per hour (km/h). Specific studies have found pedestrian walking speeds ranging from 4.51 km/h to 4.75 km/h for older individuals to 5.32 km/h to 5.43 km/h for younger individuals. A pedestrian is a person who is walking on a road, sidewalk or path.
Health benefits of walking
1.Way to lose weight walking
Walking to lose weight, it sounds somewhat strange, but if the right way, walking to lose weight is actually very simple, let us look at a specific walk to lose weight the first week of practice it ~: Good skills at the beginning of walking exercise prior to the slower than usual pace, walking about 10 minutes. Do not forget to do before the 5-minute warm-up exercises. Walk a straight line: practice walking along an imaginary straight line and feet inside the line along the outside of this move; cross on foot: still using this imaginary line along a straight line both sides of the cross by moving the feet to exercise the buttocks; Heel walking: walking with your heels, toes off the ground. Second week: step interval training exercises. Is best done on a track to finish your fastest 200 meters and then gradually slow down until the heart rate recovery to 120 beats / min, then, has completed the fastest 400 meters and then gradually slow down until heart rate returned to normal. Repeat this step, the distance was extended to 600 meters, then 800 meters, and then repeat the whole process.
2.The benefits of walking on the human body
Brisk walking 10 minutes a day not only has great health benefits, and more will make the depression wiped out. Many people on this simple recipe for significant health effects are skeptical, but according to my bad mood when you approach a 10-minute brisk walk at random friends, and afterwards are invariably told me that their tiredness Dunxiao, physically and mentally very fun, work and full of energy, and this wonderful feeling to maintain at least two hours. Research shows that medical experts: people who work long walking, cardiovascular disease, neurasthenia, chronic thromboembolic disease and the incidence of motion sickness were significantly lower than those who like to travel. Moreover, the daily walk for 30 minutes, the working efficiency will be improved significantly. Walking helps prevent many dangerous physical illnesses, including heart disease and stroke, hypertension, osteoarthritis, obesity, depression, diabetes and certain types of colon cancer. It can help those who do not currently exercise, or very little exercise, but want to save time and money to participate in a regular movement of people.
3.Edit this paragraph can stay healthy walk
"Activity is good, hyperactivity better ", but walking is the best way to stay healthy. Some chronic diseases and unhealthy eating habits, sedentary closely related to unhealthy lifestyles. For the general public in terms of" moving the useful, and more moving better, "Walking is the best way to stay healthy, now very popular in the international arena. China who wishes to move, have to change unhealthy lifestyles. Sports Bureau hope every people can establish healthy way of life, the physical exercise as a part of life, of hope that we can establish a routine, long-term volunteer services of the fitness and habits, and ultimately improve their health. Obesity is the result of lack of exercise, obesity, many people simply blame sweets or some food is one-sided, the food itself is neither good or bad, the key is to exercise the excess energy through the consumption of time out to eat equilibrium. whether it is overweight, obese or normal weight people within , needs to stay healthy through exercise, not only overweight people need to exercise. 30 minutes of brisk walking a day is the best way to stay healthy. launched the "National Fitness Day" is to enhance the public awareness of fitness, and ultimately cultivate the good habit of daily exercise. Fixed a very easy year, but every day is difficult to move. The lack of sports venues and time often become an excuse for inactivity, in fact, participate in radio gymnastics every day, go a few stops, less ride the elevator several times, as long as the long-term adherence, are good for health. to walk the streets can have a healthy body, we should always take one more walk. If there is no time to work, can move after dinner is moving.
Sustained walking sessions for a minimum period of thirty to sixty minutes a day, five days a week, with the correct walking posture,reduces health risks and has various overall health benefits, such as reducing the chances of cancer, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, anxiety and depression.Life expectancy is also increased even for individuals suffering from obesity or high blood pressure. Walking also increases bone health, especially strengthening the hip bone, and lowering the more harmful bad low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and raises the more useful good high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Studies have found that walking can also prevent dementia and Alzheimer's.
Human walking is accomplished with a strategy called the double pendulum. During forward motion, the leg that leaves the ground swings forward from the hip. This sweep is the first pendulum. Then the leg strikes the ground with the heel and rolls through to the toe in a motion described as an inverted pendulum. The motion of the two legs is coordinated so that one foot or the other is always in contact with the ground. The process of walking recovers approximately sixty per cent of the energy used due to pendulum dynamics and ground reaction force.
Walking differs from a running gait in a number of ways. The most obvious is that during walking one leg always stays on the ground while the other is swinging. In running there is typically a ballistic phase where the runner is airborne with both feet in the air.
Another difference concerns the movement of the center of mass of the body. In walking the body "vaults" over the leg on the ground, raising the center of mass to its highest point as the leg passes the vertical, and dropping it to the lowest as the legs are spread apart. Essentially kinetic energy of forward motion is constantly being traded for a rise in potential energy. This is reversed in running where the center of mass is at its lowest as the leg is vertical. This is because the impact of landing from the ballistic phase is absorbed by bending the leg and consequently storing energy in muscles and tendons. In running there is a conversion between kinetic, potential, and elastic energy.
There is an absolute limit on an individual's speed of walking due to the upwards acceleration of the center of mass during a stride - if it's greater than the acceleration due to gravity the person will become airborne as they vault over the leg on the ground. Typically however, animals switch to a run at a lower speed than this due to energy efficiencies.
As a leisure activity
Many people walk as a hobby, and in our post-industrial age it is often enjoyed as one of the best forms of exercise.
Fitness walkers and others may use a pedometer to count their steps. The types of walking include bushwalking, racewalking, weight-walking, hillwalking, volksmarching, Nordic walking and hiking on long-distance paths. Sometimes people prefer to walk indoors using a treadmill. In some countries walking as a hobby is known as hiking, rambling, or tramping. Hiking is a subtype of walking, generally used to mean walking in nature areas on specially designated routes or trails, as opposed to in urban environments; however, hiking can also refer to any long-distance walk. More obscure terms for walking include "to go by Marrow-bone stage", "to take one's daily constitutional", "to ride Shank's pony", "to ride Shank's mare", or "to go by Walker's bus". Among search and rescue responders, those responders who walk often are known as "ground pounders".
The Walking the Way to Health Initiative is the largest volunteer led walking scheme in the United Kingdom. Volunteers are trained to lead free Health Walks from community venues such as libraries and GP surgeries. The scheme has trained over 35,000 volunteers and have over 500 schemes operating across the UK, with thousands of people walking every week.
Professionals working to increase the number of people walking more usually come from 6 sectors: health, transport, environment, schools, sport & recreation and urban design. A new organization called Walk England launched a web site on the 18th June 2008 to provide these professionals with evidence, advice and examples of success stories of how to encourage communities to walk more. The site has a social networking aspect to allow professionals and the public to ask questions, discuss, post news and events and communicate with others in their area about walking, as well as a "walk now" option to find out what walks are available in each region.
The world's largest registration walking event is the International Four Days Marches Nijmegen. The annual Labor Day walk on Mackinac Bridge draws over sixty thousand participants. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge walk annually draws over fifty thousand participants. Walks are often organized as charity events with walkers seeking sponsors to raise money for a specific cause. Charity walks range in length from two mile or five km walks to as far as fifty miles. The MS Challenge Walk is an example of a fifty mile walk which raises money to fight multiple sclerosis. The Oxfam Trailwalker is a one hundred km event.
Sheep walking along a roadIn Britain, the Ramblers' Association is the biggest organization that looks after the interests of walkers. A registered charity, it has 139,000 members. Regular, brisk cycling or walking can improve confidence, stamina, energy, weight control, life expectancy and reduce stress. It can also reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, strokes, diabetes, high blood pressure, bowel cancer and osteoporosis. Modern scientific studies have shown that walking, besides its physical benefits, is also beneficial for the mind — improving memory skills, learning ability, concentration and abstract reasoning, as well as reducing stress and uplifting one's spirits.
As a form of tourism there are many options for walking. The most famous one would be "walking tours" normally offered in different cities by paid guide tours. However, there are some volunteers that can drive walking tours for tourists and do not charge for it, but just ask for a small tip at the end of the walk.
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